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Home » Applications & Technologies » Medical Application - Heart Rate Monitor
Applications & Technologies

Featured Medical Application - Heart Rate Monitor

A heart rate monitor can be a useful tool for anyone interested in exercise because it allows a person to manage the intensity of a workout. This is important because personal fitness goals often require exercise to be maintained at some target heart rate.

Dry Electrode
User
Input
Chest Strap
LNA   
Coin Cell
INA   
Wireless
PMIC
VREF
   ADC
Processor
MCU
LED Driver
Voltage
Level
Shifter
USB Transceiver
Wireless
Display
ESD
RF   
SD Card
Slot
USB
Receptacle

This design is for reference only. The design, as well as the products suggested, has not been tested for compatibility or interoperability.

Low Noise Amplifiers for Heart Rate Monitors

Amplifiers have enormous voltage gain, use feedback to operate, and can be classified in different ways. They can be identified by the device they are intended to drive (e.g., headphone amplifier, speaker amplifier), the frequency range of the signal (e.g., RF, Audio), and by the function that they perform (e.g., low noise amplifier, inverting amplifier, power amplifier.)

» View All Featured Low Noise Amplifiers for Heart Rate Monitors

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Coin Cell Batteries for Heart Rate Monitors

Batteries are a portable, wireless means of storing energy via the use of self-contained chemical cells. They can be for one-time use and discarded, or recharged and reused. In essence, a battery is an energy storage device, but can only store and release electricity as direct current. Direct current is a flat line at a given amplitude (until it declines as it is exhausted), versus alternating current, which is a sinusoidal wave.

» View All Featured Coin Cell Batteries for Heart Rate Monitors

Instrumentation Amplifiers for Heart Rate Monitors

Amplifiers have enormous voltage gain, use feedback to operate, and can be classified in different ways. They can be identified by the device they are intended to drive (e.g., headphone amplifier, speaker amplifier), the frequency range of the signal (e.g., RF, Audio), and by the function that they perform (e.g., low noise amplifier, inverting amplifier, power amplifier.)

» View All Featured Instrumentation Amplifiers for Heart Rate Monitors

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Wireless for Heart Rate Monitors

Wireless technology enables the transfer of information over short or very long distances without cables. The term "wireless" most often refers to telecommunications. Wireless communication is possible using a wireless transmitter and corresponding receiver. A wireless receiver refers to the receiving end of the information transfer and requires less energy to operate than the active transmitting portion where the transfer originates.

» View All Featured Wireless for Heart Rate Monitors

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Power Managment ICs for Heart Rate Monitors

A Power Management Integrated Circuit (PMIC) is a special-purpose IC that provides one or more power management related functions. These can include voltage regulation, DC/DC conversion, battery management capability and more. Many PMICs offer an I2C and/or SPI bus interface, and some might provide additional features such as an integrated touch screen interface.

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Voltage References for Heart Rate Monitors

A voltage reference produces a constant level of voltage over time regardless of load, changes in power supply, or temperature. Voltage references are used in power supplies, analog-to-digital converters, digital-to-analog converters, and many other applications where voltage levels must be maintained at a steady level. Without a voltage reference, precision is greatly affected and may render the device inoperable. Voltage references can vary greatly in performance. A voltage reference for a power supply might hold its output to within only a few percentage points off of its nominal or stated value; however, a voltage reference to instrumentation-level standards are measured in parts per million regarding stability and precision to the nominal or specified value.

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ADCs for Heart Rate Monitors

An Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC or A/D converter) measures the magnitude of an input analog signal and converts it to a digital number that is proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current. An ADC often converts signals collected from the real-world to digital signals for processing. One of the more important specifications of an ADC is the resolution that it offers, which is the number of discrete values (represented in bits) that the ADC produces in relation to the analog signal it is converting. The more bits, the higher the resolution. A higher resolution yields a more accurate approximation of the analog input.

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Processors for Heart Rate Monitors

The term "MCU" or "processor" refers to an electronic device that performs computational functions and carries out the instructions of a stored program. Other terms for processor are microprocessor, central processing unit, and digital signal processor. Essentially, the processor refers to "the brains of a computer."

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MCUs for Heart Rate Monitors

The term "MCU" or "processor" refers to an electronic device that performs computational functions and carries out the instructions of a stored program. Other terms for processor are microprocessor, central processing unit, and digital signal processor. Essentially, the processor refers to "the brains of a computer."

» View All MCUs for Heart Rate Monitors

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LED Drivers for Heart Rate Monitors

LED drivers are used in many applications, but in displays they are a constant-current source commonly used to power LEDs for screen backlighting. LEDs are current-driven devices whose brightness is proportional to the magnitude of forward current flow. Desirable features for an LED driver are tight regulation of current, high efficiency, PWM dimming, overvoltage protection, load disconnect, small size, and ease of use.

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Voltge Level Shifters for Heart Rate Monitors

Level shifters, or level translators, are needed because voltage levels continue to migrate to lower values to support new, low-power high-performance applications. With this change, system incompatibilities arise as technologies evolve at a different pace. If two devices are to interface reliably, the output driver voltages must be compatible with receiver input thresholds. For this condition to be met in mixed voltage systems, a level, or voltage translator is often required.

» View All Voltge Level Shifters for Heart Rate Monitors

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USB Transceivers for Heart Rate Monitors

USB is a standard connection interface between computers and digital devices. A USB transceiver is a physical layer device that prepares data for transmission and then sends to, and receives data from, another transceiver. The transceiver detects connection and provides the low level USB protocol and signaling. The term "transceiver" indicates an implementation of both transmit and receive functions. It transmits and receives, encodes and decodes data, provides error indication, implements buffers to stage data until it can be managed, and adjusts for the clock rate from the serial stream on the USB SuperSpeed bus to match that of the “link layer” higher up on the communication stack.

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Displays for Heart Rate Monitors

LCD means "liquid crystal display." It is an electronically driven flat panel screen that orients liquid crystals within the panel in a direction that blocks or transmits light coming from behind the panel. LCDs are a low cost, energy efficient visual display that can be controlled in segments or as individual pixels, in shades of black and gray, or in full color. LCDs have most commonly replaced bulky cathode ray tubes in televisions and computers and are available in all sizes. Liquid crystals were first discovered in 1888, but were first put into common use in the early 1970s as electronic digital-display watches.

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ESD for Heart Rate Monitors

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) is an instantaneous electric current that flows from a higher to a lower voltage potential without warning. One of the more well-known causes of ESD is static electricity, which is created when insulator surfaces rub together. Permanent damage can occur to semiconductor devices that are exposed to ESD. An ESD current waveform has an extremely fast rise time. ESD protection chips can be very effective but consume board space and add some amount of capacitance to an I/O line.

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RF Amplifiers for Heart Rate Monitors

Amplifiers have enormous voltage gain, use feedback to operate, and can be classified in different ways. They can be identified by the device they are intended to drive (e.g., headphone amplifier, speaker amplifier), the frequency range of the signal (e.g., RF, Audio), and by the function that they perform (e.g., low noise amplifier, inverting amplifier, power amplifier.)

» View All RF Amplifiers for Heart Rate Monitors

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Micro SD Card Slots for Heart Rate Monitors

An SD card slot is a connector for a type of flash memory card developed by the SD Card Association (SDA). SD connectors are designed to accept the asymmetrical card shape of SD memory, a feature which prevents the card from being inserted upside down. SD cards come in three sizes (microSD being the smallest) and while an adapter can enable a smaller sized card to interface with a larger-type card slot, it is generally desirable to use a connector slot of matching size when product compactness is a consideration.

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USB Receptacles for Heart Rate Monitors

USB plugs and receptacles are meant to reduce human error by their unique shape; they fit together in only one way. USB plugs and receptacles come in Type A (typically connecting to hosts or hubs) or Type B (typically connecting to devices) and 3 sizes: standard, mini, and micro. Type A plugs always face upstream, Type B faces downstream.

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